Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Renewed Effort of Antimicrobial Resistance

"Stuffed Germs" under the Christmas tree?

Health-Care Associated Infections rate in developing countries is double than US and European rates

Strain of cholera in Haiti matches Bacteria from South Asia

Scientist find that that the defenses oral microbiome are unique and traceable

CARD11: New "Officer" in Infection control Army

c diff
NDM-1 bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae

Study: agents in every 50th Patients found

Saarbrücken. In Saarland, the patient may carry dangerous germs MRSA into the hospital one more than in other German regions. In a nationally acclaimed study's found at 405 of 20 000 patients (2.02 percent) on admission in hospitals Saarland MRSA germs. This is significantly more than in two comparable studies in the region Münsterland (1.6 percent) and in the district of Siegen-Wittgenstein (1.2 percent), but are less comprehensive. In Saarland, was therefore in every 50 Patient infected with the bacterium that is resistant to penicillin-like antibiotics against. "The first result shows that we Saarland not a land of happiness in life," said Professor Mathias Herrmann, chief hygienist at Homburg University Hospital, where the study was presented Friday at the.

The germ is a major problem in German hospitals, rehabilitation facilities and nursing homes. Tens of thousands of people are diagnosed each year nationwide is estimated that after a MRSA infection. About 1,500 die from it.

HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI's) : Major consequences for Individuals and Society.

Infectious Diseases Institute has the mandate to coordinate and follow up the broad prevention efforts against HIV and STIs is happening nationally, regionally and locally.

HIV and sexually transmitted infections, STIs, can have major consequences for the individual and society. The infections can be prevented through knowledge dissemination, voluntary counseling and testing. It preventive work against HIV and STIs in Sweden will be extensive and in society. The work is based on the national strategy adopted by the Swedish parliament, that the bill 2005/06: 60, National Strategy on HIV / AIDS and other communicable diseases .

The STI is referred to HIV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, genital warts (HPV), herpes, and hepatitis. STI Sexually Transmitted Infections means and is a generic term for infections which are mainly transmitted sexually.

Operators must work together to achieve goals

The health service, schools and different parts of utbildningssytemet, NGOs and several government agencies are key players in the prevention and support work. They should work together to increase awareness of HIV and other STIs, and provide information on the consequences of having unprotected sex.Operators should also promote increased condom use and increased availability of condoms and to society provides conditions that promote sexual health. The work is often integrated with work on sexual health and in the field of sexuality and relationships in general, such as at school.

Division of HIV prevention and sexual health

Efforts to prevent HIV and STIs is done nationally, regionally and locally through a variety of stakeholders. From 1 July 2010, the Infectious Diseases Institute of the overall national, broad mandate to prevent HIV and STIs. The work is performed on the device for HIV prevention and sexual health. The unit's work includes

  • plan, coordinate and follow up on the broad health promotion and prevention
  • develop the area, initiate action
  • generating and disseminating knowledge and providing support for method development
  • reporting developments, including the responsibility of the Swedish reporting to the UN
  • develop a knowledge base and action plans
  • implement some communication activities
  • allocate the state funds in the area, currently over 145 million, government grants 2.8,
  • be the secretariat function for the National Hivrådet.

Preventive work is in large part on communication with the population, and to particularly vulnerable groups, so-called prevention groups. In addition, the need to policy makers and various groups within the profession support and guidance. In addition to the national strategy (2005/06: 60) healthy intentions regarding knowledge sharing and voluntary counseling includes prevention work, including infectious disease under the Communicable Diseases Act (2004:168), testing, treatment and contact tracing of actual infection. Welfare is responsible for coordinating the prevention of communicable diseases.

The entire population - prevention groups is a priority

Anyone can get HIV or an STI. The entire population is also subject to the prevention of HIV and STIs, as well as certain blood diseases. Some social groups are at particular risk or Especially vulnerable. These groups should be prioritized in prevention. Prevention groups are under the national strategy (Prop. 6.5: 60)

  • men who have sex with men (MSM)
  • people with drug injection
  • people of foreign origin
  • youth and young adults
  • Foreign travelers
  • pregnant women
  • people who buy and sell sex.

The work includes persons living with HIV.

There is a broad work any number of players to reach all these different groups.But the work also needs to be coordinated.

State appropriation

In order to achieve as broad a job as possible and to adapt it for different parts of the country and the needs of different groups is a state grant to be distributed annually. SMI manages the state appropriation 2:8.

First case of VIM-1 producing carbapenem-resistant klebsiella pneumoniae has identified in Ireland

WHO informs : Antimicrobial Resistant is serious problem and needs a renewel effort in controlling antimicrobial resistance

The World Health Organization informs that antimicrobial resistance is a serious problem affecting the essence of activities against infectious diseases, and may put a brake on progress in this area, and even backward.Microbial threat subject to limited oversight and against which no effective treatment has been developed.Although it is a natural response to microbes, resistance can be stopped by a cautious and appropriate antibiotics.Note that the countries of Western Europe have reduced the rate of antimicrobial resistance in certain pathogens through the adoption of a multi-pronged strategy in the context of comprehensive health systems and well regulated.

Indeed, it proved that it is possible to contain microbial resistance by making use of an integrated monitoring and resistance to antibiotics, by training and educating prescribers and consumers in the context of efforts coordinated and funded by the government, and regulating the use of antibiotics in people and in hospitals.

Unfortunately, even in well-regulated systems, like those of Europe, resistance to certain pathogens continues to grow unabated, and the problems persist regarding the use of antibiotics outside the health system, especially in the veterinary field. While the situation in the developing world, where regulation is much less common, diagnoses are not established and the provision of integrated health care remains a distant prospect.

Indeed, the fragmentation of health services, particularly in the private sector motivated by profit, makes inappropriate use and misuse of antibiotics. Given the lack of oversight on this, it is likely that the real extent of antimicrobial resistance is unknown. It's also the sudden appearance of a superbug as IFN-1, which raises awareness of the problem. Some antibiotics are effective only against certain organisms. They must be administered at a dose specific for a definite period, and they have no effect in the treatment of viral infections.

There is the false perception that all infections respond to antibiotics. For many patients, this seems to be the case.When a person with a viral respiratory infection feels better after taking amoxicillin, improving his health is generally due to the natural history of disease, not taking amoxicillin (it is also possible that the diarrhea, the side effect of the antibiotic, is actually a symptom of the disease). Mothers have the impression that it is safer to administer antibiotics to their children rather than resorting to the inhalation of steam or paracetamol.

For this, doctors prescribe antibiotics for simple viral infections in previously healthy patients to prevent possible development of secondary bacterial infections, despite the fact that good clinical trials have demonstrated the impotence of such a preservative treatment.

In developing countries, the pharmacists dispense antibiotics without prescription easily since their income depends on sales rather than fees or salary. However, the fight against these behaviors in a context characterized by the fragility of the infrastructure of health care, a lack of regulation in this regard and inadequate health education is a whole new challenge. Repeated calls for better regulation should not impede access to appropriate medications. The use of antibiotics will continue to grow in countries with low and middle income to meet needs not fully met.

Improving access to medicines, without significantly expand the appropriate use, adverse consequences, with the continual emergence of superbugs and infections refractory to treatment. Fortunately, improvements in the use of appropriate antibiotics can reduce overall health costs because their use is often unnecessary for most people.

Read The ``TRUE LIFE STORY``of a family infected with MRSA