Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

A study from Ireland in the journal “Microbiology” says that Disinfectants “teach” bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. The study exposed Pseudomonas- a common hospital bacterium- to non-lethal concentrations of some disinfectant and found that it enhanced their efflux pump mechanisms, making them less sensitive to not only the disinfectant, but also to ciprofloxacin.
Nature has published an article which says that
`Sequencing neglected microbes could accelerate the discovery of new protein families and biological traits`. It is quite possible that this may even give clues for development of new antibiotics.
An article in MSNBC brings out that `Drug-resistant infections lurk in the meat we eat and Animals routinely fed antibiotics harbor virulent germs that jump to people.
Further from US --The following four articles in the journal `Emerging infectious diseases` indicate the
serious threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans - Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World;Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada;Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs;Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections. Now the question is--- will the US Congress ban the growth promoter use of antibiotics in animals?
Bacteria of the genus Salmonella cause most food-borne illnesses. The ingestion by humans occurs mainly via contaminated egg dishes such as mayonnaise or raw milk products as well as meat or sausages. Infections with Salmonella lead to severe diarrhoea and fever, particularly in patients harbouring a compromised immune system. Researchers from the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig, Germany, say that "Based on our data, the
molecular mechanism of infection employed by Salmonella has to be revised," The results have now been published in the of the scientific journal Cellular Microbiology.
It has become harder for the Chinese to self-medicate.
The Chinese government is heavily coming down on self prescribed antibiotics .
Scientists at Binghamton University, State University of New York, have identified
three key regulators required for the formation and development of bacterial biofilms. The discovery could lead to new ways of treating chronic infections.
Phase 2 trial of eritoran tetrasodium (E5564), a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, in patients with severe sepsis is successful.
An interesting story about bacteria has emerged which tells about
Electricity-Producing Bacteria Near Energy Sources
It is proposed that Fungal footage may foster foresight into plant, animal disease (w/ Video)
An Enzyme has been discovered that
disturbs the communication processes between bacteria.
Anti-infection agents from Nanoemulsions - Nanoemulsions are superfine mixtures of soybean oil and water, stabilized by surfactants and blended at very high speeds so that the resulting droplets are less than 400 nanometers in diameter. Nanoemulsion droplets fuse with a microbe's outer membrane, disrupt the membrane and kill the organism.

Saturday, December 12, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

Biological Basis Of 'Bacterial Immune System' Discovered By Researchers
What Is Clostridium Difficile (C. Difficile)?
Infection-Control Strategies At Leading Hospital Can Be Adapted For Everyday Use
Swish And Enviro-Solutions To Launch SDC-Based Disinfectants In Canada And US

Europe to draft plan to encourage development of new antibiotics
what is done at the EU level on Problems of veterinary, food industry and environmental aspects Fighting Hospital infections & Hand washing in US
African Killer is a new MDR strain of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

Measles Deaths Decline Worldwide By 78%, Experts Warn Against Complacency
CDC, Premier Healthcare Alliance Research In Hospitals Shows Patients Can Help Improve Hand Hygiene Among Doctors, Nurses
Chicken Pox Vaccine Reduces Shingles Risk In Kids -- Study Of 172,000 Kids Used EHRs
In New Antibiotic Method, 2 Heads Better Than 1
New Clues Into How Invasive Parasite Spreads
New Guidelines For Treating Complicated Skin And Soft Tissue Infections
Will Copper Keep Us Safe From The Superbugs?
UMF Introduces Micrillon(R); New Technology Reduces Risk Of Healthcare-Associated Infections
Also In Global Health News: Cell Phones Reduce Maternal Mortality; Kenya Cholera Outbreak; Drug-Resistant Salmonella
Study Finds That Infections Are Common In ICUs World-Wide
Scientists Gain New Understanding Of Disease-Causing Bacteria
News Outlets Examine Cholera In Zimbabwe, Kenya
Regulatory Update: GSK Files Rotarix For Prevention Of Rotavirus In Japan
Biology Of Emergent Salmonella Exposed - Deadly Bug Targets Vulnerable Children And Adults In Africa

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

New antibiotics may emerge from Europe because of the accord in EU- Prof Otto Cars
The health ministers of the 27 European Union member states have adopted council conclusions concerning innovative incentives for effective antibiotics. The conclusions comprise a number of measures and recommendations with regards to antibiotic resistance, ranging from the national level strategies to ensure awareness among the public and health professionals to union level efforts to promote public-private partnerships to facilitate research into new antibiotics, diagnostic methods and strategies for use of currently available antibiotics. ReAct director, Professor Otto Cars feels this is the start of a process that can actually bring about new antibacterials that will benefit not only the EU and other wealthy countries, but also low-income countries where the burden of antibiotic resistance is greatest.
- A large multinational research project will be coordinated from Uppsala University, on “Predicting AB Resistance”. For this Prof. Dan Andersson, has received a grant of 63 million SEK from the EU.
- Danish Center for Antibiotic Research and Development, DANCARD, has been granted 31 million DKK over 6 years by the Danish Strategic Research Council for ``antibiotic research``.
- An EU-wide survey shows that of 24 countries, 17 had MRSA in breeding pig populations.

Developing new vaccinations will help Tasmanian fish farmers reduce their reliance on antibiotics.
When to Consider the Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza-Associated Pneumonia.

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

-Prof. Meital Zilberman of Tel Aviv Universitiy`s Department of Biomedical Engineering has developed a new wound dressing based on fibers she engineered - fibers that can be loaded with drugs like antibiotics to speed up the healing process, and then dissolve when they've done their job. A study published in the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Applied Biomaterials demonstrates that, after only two days, this dressing can eradicate infection-causing bacteria. The new dressing protects the wound until it is no longer needed, after which it melts away.

-A new study suggests that naturally occurring bacteria on the skin of salamanders could help protect other amphibians, including some species of endangered frogs, from a lethal skin disease. The researchers from James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee report their findings in the November 2009 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

-Viruses are well known for attacking humans and animals, but some viruses instead attack bacteria. Texas A&M University researchers are exploring how hungry viruses, armed with transformer-like weapons, attack bacteria, which may aid in the treatment of bacterial infections. The Texas A&M researchers' work is published in the renowned journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. The attackers are called phages, or bacteriophages, meaning eaters of bacteria.

-18th November 2009 marked the second annual European Antibiotic Awareness Day, established to highlight the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the need for prudent use of antibiotics. Figures from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption project, which monitors antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in countries across Europe, suggest that antibiotic use in many countries remains too high. However, prescribing habits across Europe differ from country to country, with the UK among those countries prescribing the lowest number of antibiotics per 1000 inhabitants per day.

-Anacor Pharmaceuticals announced that it has dosed the first patient in a Phase I clinical study for AN3365, a novel boron-based, small-molecule drug candidate in development for the treatment of hospital infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The study will evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AN3365 in healthy volunteers. AN3365 targets the bacterial enzyme leucyl tRNA synthetase.

-First broad spectrum anti-microbial paint to kill "superbugs". Scientists in South Dakota are reporting development of the first broad-spectrum antimicrobial paint, a material that can simultaneously kill not just disease-causing bacteria but mold, fungi, and viruses. Designed to both decorate and disinfect homes, businesses, and health-care settings, the paint is the most powerful to date, according to the new study. It appeared in the monthly ACS' Applied Materials & Interfaces. The paint shows special promise for fighting so-called "superbugs," antibiotic-resistant microbes that infect hospital surfaces and cause an estimated 88,000 deaths annually in the United States, the researchers say.

-The resistance of infectious organisms to antibiotics is particularly serious in drugs against fungi. Fungal cells are similar to human cells, which means that it is difficult to develop effective drugs that can destroy them without also damaging human cells, i.e. without causing side effects. We must therefore safeguard the effectiveness of the few antifungal drugs that are available today. Resistance to these would leave many diseases without effective treatment.

Read The ``TRUE LIFE STORY``of a family infected with MRSA