Tuesday, December 29, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

A study from Ireland in the journal “Microbiology” says that Disinfectants “teach” bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics. The study exposed Pseudomonas- a common hospital bacterium- to non-lethal concentrations of some disinfectant and found that it enhanced their efflux pump mechanisms, making them less sensitive to not only the disinfectant, but also to ciprofloxacin.
Nature has published an article which says that
`Sequencing neglected microbes could accelerate the discovery of new protein families and biological traits`. It is quite possible that this may even give clues for development of new antibiotics.
An article in MSNBC brings out that `Drug-resistant infections lurk in the meat we eat and Animals routinely fed antibiotics harbor virulent germs that jump to people.
Further from US --The following four articles in the journal `Emerging infectious diseases` indicate the
serious threat of transfer of antibiotic resistance from animals to humans - Public Health Threat of New, Reemerging, and Neglected Zoonoses in the Industrialized World;Ceftiofur Resistance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Heidelberg from Chicken Meat and Humans, Canada;Methicillin-Resistant and -Susceptible Staphylococcus aureus Infections in Dogs;Food Reservoir for Escherichia coli Causing Urinary Tract Infections. Now the question is--- will the US Congress ban the growth promoter use of antibiotics in animals?
Bacteria of the genus Salmonella cause most food-borne illnesses. The ingestion by humans occurs mainly via contaminated egg dishes such as mayonnaise or raw milk products as well as meat or sausages. Infections with Salmonella lead to severe diarrhoea and fever, particularly in patients harbouring a compromised immune system. Researchers from the Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research in Braunschweig, Germany, say that "Based on our data, the
molecular mechanism of infection employed by Salmonella has to be revised," The results have now been published in the of the scientific journal Cellular Microbiology.
It has become harder for the Chinese to self-medicate.
The Chinese government is heavily coming down on self prescribed antibiotics .
Scientists at Binghamton University, State University of New York, have identified
three key regulators required for the formation and development of bacterial biofilms. The discovery could lead to new ways of treating chronic infections.
Phase 2 trial of eritoran tetrasodium (E5564), a Toll-like receptor 4 antagonist, in patients with severe sepsis is successful.
An interesting story about bacteria has emerged which tells about
Electricity-Producing Bacteria Near Energy Sources
It is proposed that Fungal footage may foster foresight into plant, animal disease (w/ Video)
An Enzyme has been discovered that
disturbs the communication processes between bacteria.
Anti-infection agents from Nanoemulsions - Nanoemulsions are superfine mixtures of soybean oil and water, stabilized by surfactants and blended at very high speeds so that the resulting droplets are less than 400 nanometers in diameter. Nanoemulsion droplets fuse with a microbe's outer membrane, disrupt the membrane and kill the organism.

Saturday, December 12, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

Biological Basis Of 'Bacterial Immune System' Discovered By Researchers
What Is Clostridium Difficile (C. Difficile)?
Infection-Control Strategies At Leading Hospital Can Be Adapted For Everyday Use
Swish And Enviro-Solutions To Launch SDC-Based Disinfectants In Canada And US

Europe to draft plan to encourage development of new antibiotics
what is done at the EU level on Problems of veterinary, food industry and environmental aspects Fighting Hospital infections & Hand washing in US
African Killer is a new MDR strain of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium

Measles Deaths Decline Worldwide By 78%, Experts Warn Against Complacency
CDC, Premier Healthcare Alliance Research In Hospitals Shows Patients Can Help Improve Hand Hygiene Among Doctors, Nurses
Chicken Pox Vaccine Reduces Shingles Risk In Kids -- Study Of 172,000 Kids Used EHRs
In New Antibiotic Method, 2 Heads Better Than 1
New Clues Into How Invasive Parasite Spreads
New Guidelines For Treating Complicated Skin And Soft Tissue Infections
Will Copper Keep Us Safe From The Superbugs?
UMF Introduces Micrillon(R); New Technology Reduces Risk Of Healthcare-Associated Infections
Also In Global Health News: Cell Phones Reduce Maternal Mortality; Kenya Cholera Outbreak; Drug-Resistant Salmonella
Study Finds That Infections Are Common In ICUs World-Wide
Scientists Gain New Understanding Of Disease-Causing Bacteria
News Outlets Examine Cholera In Zimbabwe, Kenya
Regulatory Update: GSK Files Rotarix For Prevention Of Rotavirus In Japan
Biology Of Emergent Salmonella Exposed - Deadly Bug Targets Vulnerable Children And Adults In Africa

Thursday, December 10, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

New antibiotics may emerge from Europe because of the accord in EU- Prof Otto Cars
The health ministers of the 27 European Union member states have adopted council conclusions concerning innovative incentives for effective antibiotics. The conclusions comprise a number of measures and recommendations with regards to antibiotic resistance, ranging from the national level strategies to ensure awareness among the public and health professionals to union level efforts to promote public-private partnerships to facilitate research into new antibiotics, diagnostic methods and strategies for use of currently available antibiotics. ReAct director, Professor Otto Cars feels this is the start of a process that can actually bring about new antibacterials that will benefit not only the EU and other wealthy countries, but also low-income countries where the burden of antibiotic resistance is greatest.
- A large multinational research project will be coordinated from Uppsala University, on “Predicting AB Resistance”. For this Prof. Dan Andersson, has received a grant of 63 million SEK from the EU.
- Danish Center for Antibiotic Research and Development, DANCARD, has been granted 31 million DKK over 6 years by the Danish Strategic Research Council for ``antibiotic research``.
- An EU-wide survey shows that of 24 countries, 17 had MRSA in breeding pig populations.

Developing new vaccinations will help Tasmanian fish farmers reduce their reliance on antibiotics.
When to Consider the Use of Antibiotics in the Treatment of 2009 H1N1 Influenza-Associated Pneumonia.

Tuesday, December 8, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario-By Dr. A.J. Tamhankar

-Prof. Meital Zilberman of Tel Aviv Universitiy`s Department of Biomedical Engineering has developed a new wound dressing based on fibers she engineered - fibers that can be loaded with drugs like antibiotics to speed up the healing process, and then dissolve when they've done their job. A study published in the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Applied Biomaterials demonstrates that, after only two days, this dressing can eradicate infection-causing bacteria. The new dressing protects the wound until it is no longer needed, after which it melts away.

-A new study suggests that naturally occurring bacteria on the skin of salamanders could help protect other amphibians, including some species of endangered frogs, from a lethal skin disease. The researchers from James Madison University, Harrisonburg, Virginia and Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee report their findings in the November 2009 issue of the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology.

-Viruses are well known for attacking humans and animals, but some viruses instead attack bacteria. Texas A&M University researchers are exploring how hungry viruses, armed with transformer-like weapons, attack bacteria, which may aid in the treatment of bacterial infections. The Texas A&M researchers' work is published in the renowned journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. The attackers are called phages, or bacteriophages, meaning eaters of bacteria.

-18th November 2009 marked the second annual European Antibiotic Awareness Day, established to highlight the problem of increasing antibiotic resistance and the need for prudent use of antibiotics. Figures from the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption project, which monitors antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance in countries across Europe, suggest that antibiotic use in many countries remains too high. However, prescribing habits across Europe differ from country to country, with the UK among those countries prescribing the lowest number of antibiotics per 1000 inhabitants per day.

-Anacor Pharmaceuticals announced that it has dosed the first patient in a Phase I clinical study for AN3365, a novel boron-based, small-molecule drug candidate in development for the treatment of hospital infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria. The study will evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of AN3365 in healthy volunteers. AN3365 targets the bacterial enzyme leucyl tRNA synthetase.

-First broad spectrum anti-microbial paint to kill "superbugs". Scientists in South Dakota are reporting development of the first broad-spectrum antimicrobial paint, a material that can simultaneously kill not just disease-causing bacteria but mold, fungi, and viruses. Designed to both decorate and disinfect homes, businesses, and health-care settings, the paint is the most powerful to date, according to the new study. It appeared in the monthly ACS' Applied Materials & Interfaces. The paint shows special promise for fighting so-called "superbugs," antibiotic-resistant microbes that infect hospital surfaces and cause an estimated 88,000 deaths annually in the United States, the researchers say.

-The resistance of infectious organisms to antibiotics is particularly serious in drugs against fungi. Fungal cells are similar to human cells, which means that it is difficult to develop effective drugs that can destroy them without also damaging human cells, i.e. without causing side effects. We must therefore safeguard the effectiveness of the few antifungal drugs that are available today. Resistance to these would leave many diseases without effective treatment.

Wednesday, November 11, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario

First World Pneumonia Day on 2nd November'09 Reveals Global Burden – CDC's public health professionals join with others to help
MORE than one in five intensive care doctors working in hospitals across Europe are now seeing patients with bugs that are “totally or almost totally” resistant to antibiotics, according to a new survey - Irish Times.
Deadly superbugs have increased despite a crackdown on the best-known infections such as MRSA in UK, a parliamentary report will warn this week
UK - 'Clever Cleaning' The Way To Beat Hospital Superbugs,
UK - Fourth Report of the Mandatory Surveillance of Surgical Site Infection in Orthopaedic Surgery: April 2004 to March 2008 - of all SSI:s by staph aureus, 60% are MRSA, and of ALL SSI:s 26% are caused by MRSA
Prevention & Control of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) - US/CDC guidelines
"Non-therapeutic use" of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels for growth promotion in animals can create perfect conditions for bacteria to become resistant not only to one antibiotic, but to entire classes of the medicines- chicagotribune - US.
Hospital acquired infection at 30% level in Kenya

Modern medicine 'under threat' from antibiotic overuse
Safe use of hand sanitizers
Genome-Scale Identification Method Applied to Find Cryptic Aminoglycoside Resistance Genes Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Scientists at Queen's University, Medical Biology Center publish new data on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevention
Scientists retrace history of Leprosy

Saturday, November 7, 2009

E. Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK
NovaBay's Aganocides Show Penetration And Efficacy In A Pre-Clinical Infected Human Nail Model Of Onychomycosis
The Final Frontier: Disease Proposed As Major Barrier To Mars And Beyond
Researchers Identify Genetic Links To Fungal Infection Susceptibility
Depressed Pregnant Women Could Be At Higher Risk For Severe Response To Flu Infection
Gilead's Aztreonam For Inhalation Solution To Be Reviewed By FDA Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee On December 10, 2009
Animals Now Picking Up Bugs From People, Study Shows
Inhibikase Therapeutics Discusses New Platform For Infectious Disease Pharmaceuticals At BIOCOM 2009
New Combination Therapy Looks Promising Against Ulcer Bacteria
Rethinking The Antibody-dependent Enhancement Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Model

Request for a common short report on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focussed on
zoonotic infections based on the information currently available
Population Mobility, Globalization, and Antimicrobial Drug Resistance
Virulent Strain of MRSA Resists Treatment
Antibiotic Resistance still a major public health threat – Studies show it's worsening while there are few new Antibiotics in pipeline

An outbreak of hospital-acquired staphylococcus aureus skin infection among newborns, nan province, thailand, january 2008

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario

HHS Awards $17 Million In A New National Initiative To Fight Health Care-Associated Infections

E. Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

Discovery Of Trigger For Deadly Food Toxin

Scientists Create NICE Solution To Pneumonia Vaccine Testing Problems

Genomes of Two Popular Research Strains of E. coli Sequenced; Tracing the History, Genetic Makeup of Workhorse Laboratory Bacteria

Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines Effective At Preventing Child Deaths

Small Turtles Linked To Salmonella Outbreak

MorphoSys And Daiichi Sankyo Forge Alliance To Develop Novel Antibody Therapies Against Hospital-Acquired Infections

Antibiotic Resistant Infections Cost The U.S. Healthcare System In Excess Of $20 Billion Annually

Improving Global Response To Emerging Pandemics With Funding Of $185 Million

Cummings School Awarded USAID Grant Targeting Emerging Infectious Diseases

Thursday, October 22, 2009

Global Antibiotic Resistance Scenario

Researchers Discover How Some Infectious Bacteria Evade Destruction And Survive In Human Cells

Inexpensive Locally Produced Oral Cholera Vaccine Proven Safe And Effective

E. Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

Liverpool Hospital Fined Over Legionella, UK

Statement By Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack Regarding Recent E. Coli Story

BioDelivery Sciences Receives $1.3 Million US Army Grant For Investigation Of Bioral Amphotericin B In Topical Leishmaniasis

Ventilation mask leakage may contaminate hospital room

Iron Regulates susceptibility to infections and the TLR4 Inflammatory Signaling Pathway

E. Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

Understanding A Cell's Split Personality Aids Synthetic Circuits

Team Finds A Better Way To Watch Bacteria Swim

E Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

CDC launches again the campaign “Get Smart: Know When AB:s Work”

”Global Handwashing Day” was initiated by a global public-private partnership in 2008, and has now been launched again on October 15

US, ASM Report on ABR; ”ABR: An Ecological Perspective on an Old Problem” is recently out, presenting a more complicated background to ABR than just AB misuse.

US, ABs in food animal production; the bill on the subject has yet not passed Congress.

US, Harvard receives NIH funding for ABR research – NIH allocates 5 million USD to the ”Harvard-wide Program on AB Resistance”

New Zealand, Food Safety Authority investigation; NZ wants more knowledge on the consequences for human flora ABR of AB use in animals, and has started a year-long survey of ABR in the food chain

Friday, October 9, 2009

E. coli's Kayak Paddle-Lke Motion Tracked For First Time

Recent Releases In Global Health

E Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

Caltech Scientists Get Detailed Glimpse Of Chemoreceptor Architecture In Bacterial Cells Understanding How Humans Battle Infectious Disease Aided By Study Of Fish Mechanism To Fend Off Invading Germs

How Good Are Indicator Bacteria At Predicting Pathogens In Recreational Water?

Hygiene And Physical Barriers Should Be Given Higher Priority In Pandemic Plans

More Sophisticated, Better Coordinated Global System Needed To Effectively Prevent, Detect, Respond To Zoonotic Infectious Diseases

New Way Deadly Food-borne Bacteria Spread Discovered By University Of Central Florida Professor

E Coli O157 In Surrey: Update, UK

Terms Of Reference For Independent Investigation Into Godstone Farm E.coli O157 Outbreak Agreed

Flooding In The Philippines Could Spread Infectious Diseases, Health Department Says

Advanced Life Sciences' Restanza Demonstrates Efficacy In Plague Pivotal Animal Study

The Desperate Need for New Antibiotics (TIME Magazine), also a report by CNN

European Antibiotic Awareness Day – the second – is on November 18

Public Health Agency of Canada releases its CIPARS report on human and animal AMR data, as well as AMR prescriptions

First two strains of carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC) in Finland reported, isolated from two imported patients from Crete, Greece and northwestern Italy

C diff shows an improvement after the massive investments in improved hygiene launched by Gordon Brown

MRSA pre-admission screening whether UK governmental policy does more harm than good

Can Ambulance service caused disease spread

World MRSA Day - Oct 1st in Chicago by non-profit MRSA Survivors Network

Antibiotic Awareness Week in US - October 5 to Oct 11, 2009

EMEA technical report, and EU Presidency conference on need for new ABs – commented by ReAct; and same event echoed by Australian Sydney Morning Herald

MRSA spread between man and animals

“Doomsday bug creeping closer”

Friday, September 18, 2009

New Antibiotics Needed
The bacterial challenge: time to react
Why Don’t Doctors Wash Their Hands More?
Further drop in NHS infections

In one UK hospital, an outbreak of C difficile has prompted opening of an isolation ward
Cheap food – not so cheap – if cost of ABR is added
Mandatory screening for patients before going to surgery
UK – falling HAI rates?
Americans expect to get better when they go to the hospital, not worse
For common colds or the flu, the grocer sells chicken soup and orange juice.”
FDA Approves Valcyte(R) (valganciclovir Hydrochloride) To Prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease In Pediatric Patients
The Path To New Antibiotics
Biolog Microbial Identification System Identifies Bacterium Contaminating Kidney Dialysis Clinic
Typhoid Fever Cases In U.S. Linked To Foreign Travel
Washington Post Examines Development Of Vaccine For Food Borne Intestinal Illness
GeneThera Announces Plans To Add Therapeutic Testing Component To Johne's Disease Diagnostic Program
Surgical Scrub Solution: It's Good For Patients, Too
What Is Tetanus? What Causes Tetanus?
Surgical Scrub Solution: It's Good For Patients, Too
Center For Communicable Disease Dynamics To Be Established At HSPH To Model Factors Involved In Infectious Disease Spread And Intervention
Also In Global Health News: Africa Measles Eradication; Water, Food Security In South Asia; MDR-TB In Mumbai; SADC Summit; U.S. Cuba Embargo
World Rabies Day Symposium Emphasizing 1 Health Strategy, Hosted By K-State
New Online Learning Tool Launched To Help Kids Protect Themselves From Infections
WHO African Region Considers Measles Elimination - Dr Sambo
Clinical Trials that Address the Problem of Antimicrobial Resistance
Surviving Sepsis Program -- Increased Compliance Gets Results
Professor Barry R. Bloom Named Recipient Of National Award For Contributions To Understanding Immune Responses To Infectious Diseases
Relapse Of Infections Is The Most Challenging Aspect Of Treating Clostridium Difficile Infections In The Hospital Setting
Pioneering Research Succeeds In Producing Industrially Vital Chemical Through Engineered Bacteria
Australia: Hospital Infections Cost $1 Billion In Lost Bed Days
Mosquitoes Don't "Fall" Away As A Major Pest Problem When Summer Ends
Population Growth In Cities Exacerbates Transmission Of Dengue
Despite Financial Crisis, Africa Must Focus On Health, Rwandan President Says At WHO Regional Meeting
FDA Approves Valcyte(R) (valganciclovir Hydrochloride) To Prevent Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Disease In Pediatric Patients
E Coli 0157 In Surrey: Update
Investigation Of Cases Of E.Coli 0157 At Surrey Farm

Disease Transmission And Air Travel -- Two Upcoming Meetings
Pneumonia-Causing Diseases Kill 1.2M Children Under 5 Annually, Studies Say
Beans' Defenses Mean Bacteria Get Evolutionary Helping Hand
Scientists Find Way To Make Bacteria More Vulnerable To Existing Antibiotics
Improving Childhood Immunization Campaigns Could Reduce Sickle-Cell Deaths In Africa, Study Finds
NovaBay Launches Clinical Study For Non-Antibiotic Treatment Of Impetigo, One Of The Most Common Skin Infections
Polio Vaccination Resumes In Pakistan's Swat Valley

Care-Tech Laboratories Agrees To Stop Making, Selling And Distributing Unapproved Antimicrobial Products
South East Asian Ministers Gather At WHO Regional Meeting
Tracking Light-Emitting Bacteria During Infection
Disease-Causing Escherichia Coli: 'I Will Survive'
Fighting Infection With Manuka Honey
Useful Proteins From Bacteria
Fungal Infections: Mounting A Multi-Layered Attack
Probiotics That Ambush Gut Pathogens

Friday, April 24, 2009

-Cross-Border Dissemination of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/727.htm
-ESBL and other MDR in E coli from CA UTI’s. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/741.htm
-Retail meat in Canada contains C difficile. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/802.htm
-Reduced quinolone susceptibility in Salmonella enterica, Finland. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/809.htm
-C difficile in ready-to-eat salads in Scotland. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/817.htm
-Outbreak of C difficile 027, in Denmark 2008-2009. http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19183
-ABR trends, 2004 – 2008. http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1239695826071

Thursday, April 16, 2009

-Clostridium difficile infections continue to fall. http://www.hpa.org.uk/webw/HPAweb&HPAwebStandard/HPAweb_C/1239781746891?p=1231252394302

-Hospitalizations and Deaths Associated with Clostridium difficile Infection. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/5/pdfs/08-1154.pdf

-The emergence of Clostridium difficile link with the increased consumption of fluroquinolones and cephalosporins. http://www.eurosurveillance.org/ViewArticle.aspx?ArticleId=19176

Friday, April 10, 2009

-Novel Type of Streptococcus pneumoniae Causing Multidrug-Resistance in Children. http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/15/4/547.htm
-Environmental Cleaning Reduces Transmission of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms. http://www.shea-online.org/Assets/files/2009%20annual%20meeting/Datta_Release.pdf
-Colonization with Multidrug-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacteria. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/abs/10.1086/598194

Read The ``TRUE LIFE STORY``of a family infected with MRSA